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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 95-101

Dissecting toll-like receptor molecular regulatory network(s) in reproductive medicine, primarily infertility: A snapshot

Ajanta Hospital and IVF Centre, Lucknow, U.P., India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Saumya Pandey
Dy. Director (Academics, Clinical Research, Publications, Grants), Ajanta Hospital and IVF Centre, Lucknow, U.P.
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2394-4285.196784

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Introduction: Targeted manipulation of complex biochemical signaling pathways in unraveling the complexities associated with human reproductive disorders, including infertility, appears to be an attractive immunomodulatory therapeutic strategy in reproductive medicine and disease. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), a family of evolutionarily conserved pathogen recognition receptors, are emerging as pivotal players in the pathophysiology of a spectrum of human diseases, including infertility. Inflammation and infections in the female reproductive tract are common causes of infertility globally; TLR immune surveillance initiates inflammatory responses to foreign pathogens. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive literature search using PubMed and Medline scientific database(s) (last accessed June 6, 2016) was performed, and accordingly the author included the selected articles in the present review; public health research studies for developing cost-effective infertility assessment programs in low-resource settings targeting North Indian couples are ongoing so as to reduce the burden of disease as well as psychosocial factors associated with infertility. Results: Significant recent advances in microarray and next-generation sequencing technologies have enabled the application of whole-genome approaches to the study of infertility; successful implantation requires synchronization between the acquisition of implantation competency by the blastocyst and a receptive state in the uterine endometrium. Conclusion: The author speculates that immunomodulation of cell-specific ligand–receptor interaction(s) is essential for initiating the subsequent intermediate/downstream events in signal transduction pathways, eventually leading to specific cellular/biological response(s); in this context, TLR-based therapeutics and subsequent TLR-based patient-centric biomarker research studies will certainly provide a more meaningful understanding of the pathophysiological basis of reproductive disorders, primarily infertility in the 21st century.

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